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THE

GENERA

OF

BIRDS.

VOL. I.

London :

Spottiswoodes and Shaw, N ew-strcet-Square.

THE

GENERA OF BIRDS:

COMPRISING

THEIR GENERIC CHARACTERS,

A NOTICE OE THE HABITS OF EACH GENUS,

AND

AN EXTENSIVE LIST OF SPECIES

REFEREED TO THEIR SEVERAL GENERA.

BY

GEORGE ROBERT GRAY, F.L.S.

senior assistant of the natural history department in the British museum ;

CORRESPONDING MEMBER OP THE ROYAL ACADEMY OP SCIENCES OP TURIN; OF THE IMPERIAL AND ROYAL ACADEMY OP OL-OROOllU l Ol <** ROYAL SOCIETY OP AGRICULTURE, NATURAL HISTORY, AND USEFUL ARTS OP LYON; OP THE SOCIETY OP THE MUSEUM OP NATURAL HISTORY

OP THE LINN A3 AN SOCIETY OP LYON; OP THE ACADEMY OP NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA, U. S. ; HONORARY MEMBER OF THE NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY OF HESSE DARMSTADT; ETC. ETC.

AUTHOR OF

« , OP THE GENERA OF BIRDS," SEVERAL ENTOMOLOGICAL PUBLICATIONS, ETC.

ILLUSTRATED BY

DAYID WILLIAM MITCHELL, B.A. F.L.S.

SECKETARY TO THE ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON;

HONORARY MEMBER OP THE ROYAL ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OP AMSTERDAM, AND OP SEVERAL LEARNED SOCIETIES.

IN THREE VOLUMES.

VOL. I.

1844—1849.

LONDON:

LONGMAN, BROWN, GREEN, AND LONGMANS,

PATERNOSTER-ROW.

1849.

LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS

HER MOST GRACIOUS MAJESTY THE QUEEN.

HIS IMPERIAL MAJESTY THE EMPEROR OF AUSTRIA. ,, r

HIS ROYAL HIGHNESS PRINCE ALBERT OF SAXE COBURG AND

HIS IMPERIAL HIGHNESS THE GRAND DUKE OF TUSCANY. mCTISTADT.

HIS IMPERIAL HIGHNESS THE DUKE OF LEUCHTENBERG, PRIi

HIS HIGHNESS THE PRINCE AUGUSTUS OF SAXE COBURG. mtt^TCNANO.

HIS HIGHNESS THE PRINCE BONAPARTE, PRINCE OF CANIN HIS HIGHNESS THE PRINCE D’ESSLING.

HIS HIGHNESS THE PRINCE MAXIMILIAN OF NIEUWIED.

HIS HIGHNESS THE PRINCE KHEVENIIULLER.

HIS GRACE THE DUKE OF NORTHUMBERLAND, K. G. Tkus. kit.

HIS GRACE THE DUKE OF SUTHERLAND, K. G. Tkus. Brit. F us. etc.

THE MOST HONOURABLE THE MARQUESS OF NORTHAMP , zoological Society, Trus. Brit.

THE RIGHT HONOURABLE THE EARL OF DERBY, K. G. President

THE RIGHT HONOURABLE THE EARL CAWDOR, Trus. Brit. Mus. etc.

THE RIGHT HONOURABLE THE EARL OF BURLINGTO , etc.

The Austrian Imperial Library.

The Royal Library, Berlin.

The Royal Library, Munich.

The Royal Library, Gottingen.

Bibliotheque Royale, Paris.

The Royal Dublin Society.

The Library of the Jardin des Plantes,” Paris. The Academy of Sciences, Stockholm.

The Library of King’s College, Toronto.

The University Library, Liege.

The Amsterdam Reading Society.

Le Musee Royal d’Histoire Naturelle, Bruxelles. Catholic Library, Louvain.

The Royal Institution of Liverpool.

The Leeds Philosophical Society.

The Warwickshire Natural History Society.

The Belfast Library.

The Yorkshire Philosophical Society.

The Norfolk and Norwich Literary Institution. The Hobart Town Museum.

Lady Monteagle.

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Lady Mary Legge, Blackheath.

Mrs. Anderdon, Bath.

Miss Hill, Eltham.

Mrs. Maltby, Bath.

Miss Pollard, Oldchurch, Cumberland.

[rs. C. Ramsden, Bath.

[rs. Wiiewell, Trinity Lodge, Cambridge.

[essrs, Artaria and Fontaine, Manheim.

I. Asher, Berlin.

. J. Audubon, Esq. F.R.S. &c. lessrs. Aylott and Jones.

William Beckett, Esq. M. P.

'homas Bell, Esq. F.R.S. &c. Professor of Zoology, King College London.

1 Bennett, Esq. F.L.S. Sydney.

. . ' !•' U ^ Secretary to the Linnean

ohn Joseph Bennett, Esq. h.K.b. secretary to

Society.

lr. Bielefeld, Carlsruhe.

lessrs. A. and C. Black, Edinburgh.

L Bland, Esq. Bath, lr. Lionel Booth.

lessrs. Bossange and Co. Chatham to

t'he Rev. Timothy Fysh Foord-Bowes, D.D. P

Her Majesty.

lessrs. Bkockhaus and Avenarius, Letpz | ^ Ti^cel^ C.B. Oovernor of Labuan, &c.

a owin' Brown, Esq. lr. Brown, Brussels.

Daniel Cabanel, Esq.

S*?u“w,LT» Dillwyh, E,,. F.L.S. F.G.S. *c.

VOL. I.

VI

LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS.

Edward Doubleday, Esq. F.L.S. F.R.G.S. &c.

M. le Chevalier Dubus.

Mr. Duncker, Berlin.

Richard Eastham, Esq. Blackburn.

W. M. Ellis, Esq.

Joseph Walter King Etton, Esq.

T. C. Eyton, Esq. F.L.S. F.Z.S. &c.

Walter Ewer, Esq. F.R.S. F.L.S.

The Rev. T. J. Ewing.

Capt. Farmer, 51st Regiment.

Fitton, Esq.

G-. S. Foljames, Esq.

Sir Charles Forbes, Bart.

George Forbes, Esq.

Mr. John Friend, Curator of the Dovor Museum.

Messrs. Galignani.

William Gladdish, Esq. Cliff Cottage, Gravesend.

W. Goodwin, Esq.

John Gould, Esq. F.R.S. F.L.S. &c.

JonN Edward Gray, Esq. F.R.S. 8c c. Zoological Department, British Museum.

W. Vernon Guise, Esq.

R. Gunn, Esq.

John Henry Gurney, Esq.

R. B. Hale, Esq. M.P.

H. G. Harrington, Esq.

Dr. Hartlaub, Bremen.

J. Heathcote, Esq.

John Hewson, Esq. Lincoln.

B. II. Hodgson, Esq. F.L.S. Darjeeling.

Mr. Hodgson.

T. IIorsfield, M.D. F.R.S. Museum of the Hon. East India Company.

Henry Noel Humphreys, Esq.

Mr. Jackson, Islington.

The Rev. Charles James, Evenlode Rectory.

Jamieson, Esq.

Sir William Jardine, Bart. F.R.S.E. 8cc.

George Dennis John, Esq.

Mr. Kinberg, Lund.

Mr. Klincksieck, Paris.

Baron de Lafresnaye.

Mr. John Leadbeater.

Messrs. Liesching and Co. Stuttgard.

Messrs. Little and Brown, Boston, U. S. Four Copies.

J. D. Llewelyn, Esq. F.R.S. 8cc.

W. H. Lloyd, Esq. F.L.S. F.A.S. F.Z.S. &c.

William Longman, Esq.

Messrs. H. Low and Co. Clapton.

Messrs. Maclachlan, Stewart, and Co. Edinburgh.

Four Copies.

Charles Main waring, Esq. Coleby Hall, Lincoln.

D. C. Majoribanks, Esq.

John Marshall, Esq. Hallsteads, Cumberland.

Mr. Mason, Tenby.

Henry Milner, Esq. Nun Appleton Park.

Alexander Mitchell, Esq.

M. Charles Muquardt, Brussels.

Moxon, Esq. Wellington.

M. Parfait O Des Murs.

Messrs. Ostell and Lepage.

Captain F. J. S. Parry, F.L.S.

Francis P. Pascoe, Esq. Trewhiddle, Cornwall.

John Pavin, Esq. Two Copies.

Col. A. Petrie.

Dr. Pitman.

Dr. Plomley, F.L.S.

John Reeves, Esq. F.R.S. F.L.S. 8cc.

Mr. Lovel Reeve, A.L.S.

Mr. C. A. Reitzel, Copenhagen.

C. G. Richardson, Esq.

Sir John Richardson, M.D. F.R.S. 8cc. Inspector of Hospitals, Ilaslar.

Edward II. Rodd, Esq. Penzance.

F. Rodd, Esq. Trebartha Hall, Launceston.

Mr. P. Rohrmann, Vienna. Two Copies.

F. W. L. Ross, Esq. Corresp. Mem. of Devon and Cornwall Nat. Hist. Soc.

Dr. Kuppell, Frankfort.

William Wilson Saunders, Esq. F.L.S.

Mr. T. Saunders.

Rev. William Slatter, Oxford.

Baron de Selys Longchamps, Liege.

John Skaife, Esq.

Samuel Simpson, Esq.

Andrew Smith, Esq. M.D. Surgeon to the Forces, Chatham. Messrs. Smith, Elder, and Co. Five Copies.

Mr. Smith, Aberdeen.

M. le Comte de Sparre.

Rev. William Streathfield, Margate.

Hugh E. Strickland, Esq. F.G.S. 8cc.

M. Temminck, Director of the Royal Museum, Leyden.

N. Troughton, Esq.

Mr. John Turner.

Mr. Varniiam.

Vivian Walmesley, Esq.

Mr. T. 0. Weigel, Leipsig.

The Rev. Edward Willes, M.A.

Edward Wilson, Esq. Lydstip House, Pembrokeshire.

Thomas B. Wilson, M.D. Newark, Delaware, U. S.

The Rev. Henry Orme Wood.

William Yarrell, Esq. F.L.S. V.P.Z.S. 8cc.

PREFACE,

It is now many years since an attempt has been made to give an outline of the state of the Sc’e Ornithology, in a general elementary work. In the preface to the first edition ot my L\

Genera of Birds,” published in 1840, I stated that I had been for some time past occupied in drawing up the characters of the genera, the nomenclature of which I then promulgated, and that y on this subject might hereafter be given to the world m a more perfect form. The form whic have now adopted is one which will, I trust, be easily understood, even by the tyro who seeks to make himself systematically acquainted with the science ; but a few remarks and explanations may not be

altogether unnecessary.

The system, more fully carried out in the present Work, is the same with that of which my List of Genera furnishes the outline. It is founded as much as possible on the similarity of habits and on the consequent approximation of external characters of the different groups m relation to each ot er ; and has met with considerable approbation from various authors who have referred _ &

alterations will be found in the positions of a small number of genera, but none affecting t e more important features of the system ; and the strict law of priority has been studiously o owe regard to the names employed, to the utmost of my knowledge and ability.

Those genera only have been taken up, which were thought to be founded on characters of sufficient

importance to warrant their general adoption. This part of the Work will be seen to be o

innumerable difficulties, when it is considered how large a number of divisions have cen propose

during the last few years ; but I have endeavoured to limit myself to such an amount of subdivision

as appeared to me to afford the nearest approximation to a uniform system of nomenclature. tmay

appear to some of my readers that I have exercised a severer scrutiny in the reduction o ese

subdivisions in some subfamilies than that which has been applied to others; but I tin tna, i wi

generally be found that such cases occur chiefly in those subfamilies which had cen su Jec ® y

rpsnpct than is consistent with the

some previous writer or writers to a more minute analysis 1 I . . ,

1 _ ,i i OT1 j should be taken into con-

uniformity of system required in a general work On e ° knowledge of the species at

sideration that the several articles were prepared m ”CC°“ bcr of species with which I have become

the time of their publication; and that with the mcreased of ^ publioation of the

acquainted during the five years that have elapse

Vlll

PREFACE.

Work, I should probably at the present moment be inclined to reduce still further the genera of a few of the subfamilies. It must also be remembered that I have endeavoured to adopt such names oidy as maybe supposed to designate genera; those of the lower divisions or subgenera are given under the names of the species which form their type ; and I have added the synonymous names of the genera as well as those of the subgenera, in the form of notes to the generic name employed.

The difficulties in the way of defining the value of a division are indeed very great, and its adoption must always depend much on individual opinion, as well as on the extent of our knowledge of species ; for an isolated species often appears to form the basis of a good division when examined by itself, while the distinction vanishes at once when the bird is examined in connection with the entire mass of species forming the group to which it belongs. Genera, too, are not unfrequently established on unique specimens which are difficult of access, and have been recorded without the aid of figures to give an accurate idea of their forms ; but of such I may state that there are only a very few instances in which I have not had the good fortune to obtain the means of examining either the specimens themselves or drawings made from them. Great caution is also required in dealing Avith genera established, as some have been, on falsified or distorted specimens, such, for instance, as Erolia , Barb ilan ius = Spar a ctes, fly reus, Autrochenon , and Anarhynchus ; to which I may add Verrulia , which I have recently learned is considered to have been established on a pigeon furnished Avith wax Avattles and a false tail, for Avhich reason it becomes necessary to blot out this genus from among the Gourince.

Great obstacles frequently occur in the Avay of ascertaining the true and proper (that is to say, the earliest-employed) generic names, many having been first published in Transactions, Journals, Books of Travels, and even more miscellaneous works, Avhich have not been much examined for this purpose until of late. I may mention tAvo examples illustrative of this difficulty, which require correction in the present Work. I had been led to suppose that Phaleris of M. Temminck (1820) Avas the oldest name for the division to Avhich I have applied it in the body of the Work ; but I have lately found that that division was proposed in the previous year (1819) by Merrem in Ersch und Grub. Encycl.” under the name of Simorliynchus : and I have been informed by Dr. Hartlaub ( AAdio Avas indebted for the information to the Prince of Wurtemburg) that the division for which I have adopted Mr. SAvainson’s name of Calurus (1837) was proposed as far back as 1801 by Pedro de la Llave, in a Mexican publication entitled Registro trimestre,” under the name of Pharomachrus.

Such changes Avith regard to generic names must continually take place until our knoAvledge of all that has been done by previous Avriters becomes registered in a general Avork, by means of which the information thus eventually obtained by dint of continued application cannot fail to become the foundation of that most desirable object, a uniform system of nomenclature.

The Index of Generic Names referred to in this Work will be found to extend to upwards of 2400 ; a greater number than has been recorded in any previous publication. Of the genera adopted (amounting

PREFACE.

IX

to 815) I have endeavoured to convey the characters in a short and concise manner, but I trust sufficiently detailed to embrace and circumscribe the species which they are severally presume to comprise. The generic characters are followed by a short notice of the habits of the birds which are best known or most characteristic of the genus under which they are placed. These I have usually drawn up from the writings of other authors, but iu a few instances I have been able to add some particulars derived from private information. This is a subject of the greatest interest; but unfortunately little is known of the habits of very many forms, and it is therefore to be hoped that those naturalists who have the means will not neglect the opportunity of adding such facts as may come to them knowledge regarding these species, and thus while contributing towards the history of their economy, assist the same time in exemplifying their proper position in the general system.

Then follows an extensive List of Species, with references to the names of the older authors, and to the numerous specific descriptions that have been published within the last few } ears, and^ y . which are scattered through a multitude of publications not always easy of examination 1 .

of the Work has been attended with no small amount of labour and research ; and its due execution is beset with numerous sources of error, some of which it may not be improper to mention here. Ihus, tor instance, the undefined nature of the genus in which many of the species were placed by their original describers, their location in an improper genus, or even the imperfect nature of the description Use , frequently rendered it difficult, if not impossible, to determine to what genus, in the system employed m the present Work, many species really belonged. Again, it is not always easy, even wit a very extensive knowledge of species, to define what is really to be regarded as a true species. This grea y depends on individual opinion ; some ornithologists, for example, considering the a ie examp es ount in the two hemispheres to belong to the same species; while others consider t ose e ongmg o each of these great divisions of the world to be specifically distinct; and we frequently find different states of the same bird, or even hybrids between two species, described as distinct. t is some imes scarcely possible to clear up such difficulties by means of descriptions only, whereas a careful examina- tion of the original specimens would generally be sufficient to enable an experienced ornithologist to determine on their right to be regarded as distinct species.

Some, too, of the species described by the older authors, from the Leverian and other museums now dispersed, have not since been recognised in other collections. Yet it is essential that they should be inserted in the list of species, inasmuch as it is probable that many, if not most, of them 1 Y brought to light, as has actually been the case in several recent instances. Numerous species been recorded, on the authority merely of drawings more or less coirect, and the exam' . drawings, when practicable, has not unfrequently led to the superseding of names aiven y writers, by those employed by the older describers. It will be found, moreover, that many descriptions,

even of a modern date, are so imperfect, either from their brevity 01 from a laxity #

n . . croppies which could in such cases only be

as to be wholly insufficient for the identification of the 1 >

, . . , Wh an extent of information could only be

arrived at by the inspection of the original specime . ^

VOL. I.

X

PREFACE.

derived from the examination of all public and privat e collections ; but this is evidently beyond the power of any single individual to accomplish. Much might, however, be done to further this most desirable object by the combined exertions of the curators of the principal collections of birds uniting to publish their remarks on the less known and doubtful species, described from their several collections. But even this resource would sometimes fail ; as, for instance, in cases where such unique birds have disappeared from the collections in which they formerly existed, and may consequently remain for years unknown and almost forgotten, until by some lucky chance they may be rediscovered and more correctly defined, when I doubt not that they would in some instances prove to be synonymous with species more recently described. For these reasons it is obviously improper to discard species from our lists, merely because they have not been recently seen and examined, thereby casting an unwarranted doubt on the accuracy of previous writers, and leaving an opening for the redescription, as new, of old species already more or less correctly recorded in our systems.

It is hardly necessary to do more than to allude to the artifices of dealers and others, who have occasionally produced what have been regarded as new and splendid species by artificial means, which supposed species have been innocently introduced into works of science, on the writers of which the falsification has been imposed. Such forgeries require no small degree of caution to insure their rejection, and many other difficulties might be mentioned to which a full and accurate enumeration of species is exposed; but enough has been said to show both that my task has been attended with considerable labour, and that it would be unjust to hold me entirely responsible for any apparent want of correctness in the list of species which may be discovered in the monographic study of any particular group. This will more especially appear when it is considered that my researches have been extended to upwards of 8000 species, such being the number which I have considered entitled to be enumerated as species in this Work, but in which many changes will necessarily take place as they become better known ; and that the entire series from which I have extracted this number of species contains about 15,000 specific names, as is shown by the Index which I have given at the end of the Work. The placing in their proper genera of this mass of specific names, and the indication at the same time of those Avhich I regard as merely synonymous, must have at least the beneficial influence of making the literature of the science better known and more readily capable of examination by others, and thus of preventing, to a great extent, the application of further synonymous terms to birds that have been already sufficiently recorded, paving the way, as a further consequence, to a uniform system of nomenclature of the species, which might be agreed upon and adopted by the ornithologists of all nations.

I trust, therefore, that some allowance will be made for such errors as may be discovered to exist ; that the difficulties with which I have had to contend will be taken into consideration ; and that, it will be remembered that the present is the first attempt that has been made, for many years, to collect together a list of species from all available sources , many of them very difficult of access and scattered through the ever increasing multitude of Transactions, Journals, and Voyages, a large portion of which have rarely been examined by ornithological writers.

PREFACE.

XI

A few words may be added on some additional features which I have thought it desirable to introduce into the Work. It was impossible, in the first instance, to number the pages, on account of the irregular order in which, from various causes, it was necessary that the subfamilies should be issued ; but in the Table of Contents I have shown how the numbers of the pages should run with the several articles, and this paging will be found greatly to facilitate the consultation of t .

During the five years of its progress much additional matter has been carefully collected, which » added in the Appendices, where many new species, and other information published or met wit i subsequently to the publication of the several articles to which they refer, will be found recorded, for the purpose of completing, as nearly as possible up to the present time, the summary of our knowledge of the species belonging to each genus. Lastly, to facilitate the finding of the names of those which have been figured in various standard ornithological works of large extent, I have taiv series of Lists of the Names employed in this Work, with references to each plate of those works consecutive order, which I trust may prove useful in naming collections fiorn those gieat stores published figures, by enabling the student at a glance to obtain the infoimation he desires with vca

to any particular figure.

G. R. GRAY.

Hampstead, August 20. 1849.

POSTSCRIPT BY THE ILLUSTRATOR.

It is perhaps scarcely necessary to state that the Illustrations of this Book have no claim to be con- sidered as works of art. My constant object has been to represent, as closely as possible, those characteristic variations of form which are relied on by ornithologists as the distinctive marks of generic separation.

When I accepted the office of Secretary to the Zoological Society, and found myself no longer a to devote to the completion of this series of plates the time which the work demanded, I was fortunate enough to obtain the assistance of Mr. Wolf of Coblentz ; and I have the pleasure of believing, that, as I thus secured the best available talent in Europe as a substitute for my own pencil, my nen s wi have no cause to regret that the latter part of the Work has been intrusted to anotl

D. W. MITCHELL.

Montague Street, Aug. 29. 1849.

Order.

I. ACCIPITKES

II. PASSER ES

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

VOL. I.

List op Subscribers Preface -

Suborder or Tribe. Family.

I. Accipitres muRNi I. Vulturidae

II. Falconid®

II. Accip. noctueni III. Strigidie

I. Fissirostres l- Caprimulgid®

i. FlSS. NOCTURNI

ii. Fiss. diurni II. Hirundinid®

III. Coraciade

IV. Trogonid®

V. Alcedinidffi

VI. Meropid®

II. Tenuirostres I. Upupid®

II. Promeropid®

III. Trochilidffi

IV. Meliphagid®

Subfamily.

1. Gypaetin®

2. Sarcoramphin®

3. Vulturina

4. Gypoliieracina

1. Polyborinse

2. lluteonina 1

3. Aquilin®

4. Falconin®

5. Milvina

6. Accipitrin® 1 -

7. Circin®

1. Surnin®

2. Bubonin®

-

3. Syrniin®

4. Strigin®

1. Steatornin®

-

2. Caprimulgin®

-

3. Podagerin®

1. Cypselin®

*

2. Hirundinin®

J. Coracian®

-

2. Todin®

-

3. Eurylaimin®

4. Momodn®

-

1. Trogon -

"

1. Bucconin®

-

2. Halcyonin®

3. Alcedinin®

4. Galbulin®

1. Meropin®

-

1. Upupiu®

2. Epimacliin®

1. Promeropin®

-

2. C®rebinae

1. Grypin®

2. Trochilin®

3. Mellisugin®

X. Myzomelin®

Page

- V.

- vii.

Coloured

Plates

Pages

Plates.

of Details.

1 2

1.

3 4

II. J

5-6

III. |

3.

. 7 8

IV. j

9—10

v- ]

5.

. 11 12

VI j

- 13 18

VII.2

7.

19 22

VIII.

8.

- 23 26

IX.

9.

- 27 30

X.

10.

- 31 32

XI.

11.

. 33 36

XII.

12.

- 37 38

XIII.

13.

- 39 40

XIV.

14.

1

1

XV.

15.

- 43 46

XVI.

16.

O

1

t-

1

XVII.

17.

- 51 52

XVIII.

18. -

- 53 56

XIX.

} *

O

CO

1

o-

1

XX.

- 61 62

XXI.

21.

- 63 64

XXII.

]

- 65 66

XXIII.

}- 22.

00

CO

1

r-

CO

XXIV. .

J

- 69 72

XXV.

25.

- 73 76

XXVI.

26.

. 77 80

XXVII.

27-

. 81 82

XXVIII.

1 28 & 29.

. 83 84

XXIX.

J

- 85 88

XXX.

30.

- 89 92

XXXI.

T- 3G

- 93 94

XXXII.3

J

. 95 100

XXXIII.

33.

- 101—102

XXXIV.

34.

- 103 106

XXXV.

I

- 107—11°

XXXVI.

35.

- 111—116

XXXVII.

J

. 117—120

XXXVIII.

38.

> Retain that only which bears the date June, . 849,” at the end of the article^ milgnificus.

3 Marked by mistake L XXX IV. c

VOL. i.

XIV

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

Order.

II. PASSERES

continued.

III. Dentirostres

Suborder or Tribe. II. Tenuirostres continued.

IV. CONIROSTRES

Coloured

Plates

Family.

Subfamily.

Pages.

Plates.

of Details.

IV.

Meliphagid®

2. Meliphagin® -

- 121—126

XXXIX.

39.

continued.

3. Meiith rep time -

- 127—130

XL.

(with 38.)

V.

Certhid®

1. Furnarin®

- 131-134

XL1.

41.

2. Synallaxin®

- 135 138

XL1I.

42.

3. Dendrocolaptirife

- 139-142

XL1II.

43.

4. Certhin®

r 143—146

XLIV.

41.

5. Sittin® -

- 147—150

XLV.

45.

6. Orthonyein® -

- 151-152

XLVI.

(with 44.)

7- Menurin®

- 153— 160

XLVII.

47.

I.

Luscinidse

1. Malurin®

. i6i_i70

XLVIII.

48.

2. Luscinin®

- 171—176

XLIX.

49.

3. Erythacin®

- 177—186

L.

50. A

4. Accentorin® -

1

00

-T

l

O

LI.

5!./

5. Parin® -

- 191—194

LII.

52.

6. Mniotiltin®

- 195—200

LIII.1

53. e

7. Motacillin®

- 201 206

LIV.

54.

11.

Turdid®

1. Formicarin® -

- 207 216

LV.

55.

2. Turdin®

- 217—222

LVI.

56.

.3. Timalin®

■■ 223 230

LVII.

57.

4. Oriolin®

- 231—234

LVI 1 1.

58.

5. Pycnonotin® -

- 235— 238

L1X.

59-

III.

Muscieapidae

1. Querulin®

- 239-240

LX.

60.

2. Alectrurin®

- 241—244

LXI.

61.

3. Tyrannin®

- 245—252

LXII.

| (witli 60.)

4. Tityrin®

- 253—254

LXI 11.

5. Muscicapin® -

- 255— 266

LX IV.

| 63.

6. Vireonin®

00

so

o?

1

I'-

ve

©*

LXV.

IV.

Ampelid®

1. Pachycephalin®

- 269— 272

LXVI.

66.

2. Piprin®

- 273—276

LXV 1 1.

67.

3. Ampelin®

- 277—280

LXVIII.

68.

4. Campephagin®

- 281—284

LX1X.

69.

5. Dicrurin®

- 285—288

LXX.

70.

V.

Laniid®

1. Laniin® -

- 389— 296

LXXI.

71.

2. Thamnophilin®

- 297—300

LXXII.

72.

VOL.

II.

I. Corvid®

1. Phonygamin® -

- 301 304

LXXIII.

73.

2. Garrulin®

- 305—308

LXXIV.

74.

3. Calhcatin®

- 309—312

LXXV.

75.

4. Corvin®

- 313— 316

LXXVI.

76.

5. Gymnoderin® -

-•-'317—319

LXXVII.

77-

II. Paradiseid®

6. Pyrrhocoracin®

- 320—321

LXXVIII. ]

\ 78 & 79.

1. Paradisein®

- 322— 323

LXXIX. J

III. Sturnid®

1 . Ptilonorhynchin®

- 324 329

LXXX.

80.

2. Graculin®

- 330—331

LXXXI. )

\ 8K

3. Buphagin®

- 332—333

LXXXII. J

4. Sturnin®

- 334— 339

LXXXI 1 1.

83.

5. Quiscalin®

- 340 -341

LXXX IV.3

84.

6, Icterin®

- 342-345

LXXXV.4

85.

7. Agelain®

- 346—349

LXXXVI.

86.

IV. Fringillid®

1. Plocein®5

- 350—355

LXXX VI I.

87.

2. Coccothraustin®

- 356-359 LXXXVIII.

88.

Marked Sylvicolinat. 8 Page 3 ) 8. left out by mistake. 3 Marked VII. * Marked LX XXVI.

5 That bearing the date March, 1849,” at the end of the article.

\

Order.

II. PASSE RES

continued.

HI. SCANSORES

IV. COLUMBAI

V. GALLINdE

Suborder or Tribe. IV. CONIROSTRES continued.

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

Family.

IV. Fringillid®

continued.

V. Colid®

VI. Musophagid*

VII. Bucerotid®

I. Rampliastid® II. Psittacid®

III. Pieid®

IV. Cuculid®

I. Columbid®

Subfamily.

3. Tanagrin®

4. Fringillin®

5. Emberizin® -

6. Alaudin®

7. Pyrrhulin®

8. Loxin® -

9. Phytotomin® -

1. Colin® -

1. Musophagin® -

2. Opisthocomin®

1 . Bucerotin®

1. Ramphastin® -

1. Pezoporin®

2. Arain® -

3. Lorin® -

4. Psittacin®

5. Cacatuin®

1. Capitonin®

2. Picumnin®

3. Picin® -

4. Gecinin®

5. Melanerpin® -

6. Colaptin®

7. Yuncin®

1 . Indicatorin® -

2. Saurotherin® -

3. Ccccyzin®

4. Crotophagin® -

5. Cuculin®

1. Treronin®

2. Columbine

3. Gourin®

4. Didunculin® -

5. Didin® -

VOL.

1. Cracid®

II. Megapodid®

III. Phasianid®

IV. Tetraonidffi

V. Chionidid®

VI. Tinamid®

2 Both plates marked

1. Penelopin®

2. Cracin® -

1. Talegallin®

2. Megapodin®

1. Pavonine

2. Phasianin®

3. Gallin® -

4. Meleagrin®

5. Lophophorin® -

1. Perdicin®

2. Turnicin®

3. Odontopliorin®

4. Tetraonin®

5. Pteroclin®

1. Thinocorin® -

2. Chionidinffi 1. Tinamin®

125.

XV

Coloured

Plates

Pages.

Plates.

of Details.

. 360—367

LXXXIX.

89;

- 368—375

xc.

90.

- 376-379

XCI.

91-

. 380—383

XCII.

92.

- 384—387

XCIII.

93.

- 388—389

XCIV.

)

- 390—391

XCV.

^ 94.

- 392—393

XCVI.1

J

- 394-395

XCVII.

| 97.

- 396—397

XCVI II.

- 398—401

XCIX.

99.

. 402 405

c.

100.

. 406—41 1

Cl.

101. lOlfl.

- 412—415

C1I.

102.

- 416-419

CIII.

103.

. 420—423

CIV.

104.

.. 404 427

cv.

105.

- 428—431

CVI.

\ 106.

- 432—433

evil.

J

- 434 437

cvui.

108.

. 438 441

CIX.

109.

. 442 445

cx.

no.

- 446 447

CXI.

X 111.

- 448 449

CXII.

J

- 450 451

CXIII.

| 113.

- 452—453

CXIV.

- 454—457

cxv.

115.

- 458—461

CXV1.

} 117.

- 462 465

CXV 1 1.

- 4 66 - 467

CXVIII.

J 118.

- 468—473

CXIX.

- 474—479

CXX.

120.

- 480-481

CXX.a (with 186.)

- 482—483

120. (2)

- 484—485

CXXI.

121.

. 486—487

CXXII.

122.

- 488 489

CXX1II.

123.

- 490—493

exxiv.

124.

- 494—495

exxv.

125.

- 496— 497

CXXVI.2

126.

1

4*

rO

CO

1

4*.

ro

CXXVII.3

127.

- 500-501

CXXVI1I.

128.

- 502—503

CXX IX.

129.

- 504- 509

exxx.

130.

- 510—511

CXXXI.

131.

. 512—515

CXXXII.

1 32.

- 516— 517

- 518—519

CXXXI1I. 1 CXXX1V. J

133.

. 520— 521

CXXXV. 1

135.

. 522-523

CXXXVI. J

- 524—525

CXXXVII.

137-

3 Both plates marked 126.

; Marked XCV.

XVI

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

Order. Suborder or Tribe.

VI. STRUTHIONES

VII. GRALLAE

VIII. ANSERES

Appendix

Supplementary Appendix Generic and Specific Names Index of Generic Names Index of Specific Names

1 Both plates marked 148.

Family.

Subfamily.

I. Struthionidae

1. Struthioninae -

2. Apteryginae

3. Otidinae -

I. Charadriadas

1. GSdicneminse -

2. Cursorinae

3. Glareolina;

4. C’haradrinte

.5 Haematopodime 6. Cinclinae

II. Ardeidae

1 . Psophime

2. Gruime

3. Ardeinae

4. Ciconime

5. Tantalime

III. Scolopacida?

1. Limosinae

2. Totaninae

3. Recurvirostrinas

4. Tringinae

5. Scolopacinae

6. Phalaropodinse

IV. l’alamedeidie

1. Parrinae

2. Palamedeinae »

V. Rallidse

1. Rallinae -

2. Gallinulinse

I. Anatidae

1. Phoenicopterinae

2. Plectropterinae

3. Anserinae

4. Cygninae

5. Anatinae

6. Fuligulina?

7. Erismaturinae -

8. Merginae

II. Colymbidae

1. Colymbinae

2. Podicipinas

3. Heliorninse

III. Alcidae

1. Alcinse -

2. Phaleridime

3. Spheniscinae

4. Urinae

TV. Procellaridte

1 . Procellarinat -

2. Diomedeinae

V. Laridic

1. Larinae -

2. Rhynchopinaa -

3. Sterninae

VI. Pelecanidte

1 . Phaetoninae

2. Plotinac -

3. Pelecaninae

referred to figures of Ornithological Woiks

2 Marked CLII.

3 Marked CLXI.

Coloured

Plates

Pages.